Monday, November 19, 2007

Burn



(fil) Paso, (ilocano) nasinit



OVERVIEW

  • Burns are tissue injuries caused by heat, chemicals, electricity or irradiation
  • The extent of injury (depth of burn) reflects the intensity of heat and duration of exposure.




First degree burn
( superficial layers of the skin)
  • tingling and hypersensitivity to the skin
  • affected area is dry with little or no swelling
  • wound may appear red turning to white when pressed

Second degree burn
(varying degrees of skin, with blister formation
  • redness, swelling and blistering on the affected area
  • the wound may have a weeping surface

Third degree burn
(destruction of the full thickness of skin and underlying tissues
  • surface of the burn may be white and soft, black, charred and leathery
  • no feeling or sensation on burned area


CAUSES

  • open flame and hot liquid (most common)
  • caustic chemicals or acids
  • electricity
  • excess sun exposure




  • Use sunscreen when out of doors.
  • Keep electrical cords and outlets in the home safe.
  • Isolate household chemicals.
  • Use low-temperature setting for hot water heater.
  • Store and use flammable substance properly.


Minor Burns
  1. If the skin is unbroken, run cool water over the area of the burn or soak it in a cool water bath (not ice water). Keep the area submerged for at least 5 mins. A clean, cold, wet towel will also help reduce pain.
  2. After flushing or soaking for several minutes, cover the bur with a sterile bandage or clean cloth.
  3. Protect the burn from pressure and friction.
  4. Minor burns will usually heal without further treatment. However, if a second degree burn covers an area more than 2 to 3 inches in diameter, or if it occurred on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, or a major joint, then treat the burn as a major burn.

Major Burns
  1. If someone is on fire, wrap the person in thick, non-synthetic material to smother the flames (use a wool or cotton coat, rug, or blanket), or lay the person flat and roll him or her on the ground. If your clothes catch fire. STOP, DROP and ROLL.
  2. Make sure that the person is no longer in contact with smoldering materials and is breathing. If breathing has stopped, or if the person's airway is blocked, open the airway. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR.
  3. Cover the burn area with cool, moist sterile bandage (if available) or clean cloth.
  4. Elevate the body part that is burned above the level of the heart. Protect the burnt area from pressure and friction.
  5. Take steps to prevent shock. Lay the person flat, elevate the feet about 12 inches, and cover him or her with coat or blanket. However do not place the person in this shock position if a head, neck, back, or leg injury is suspected or if it makes the person uncomfortable.
  6. Continue to monitor the person's vital signs (pulse, rate of breathing, blood pressure) until medical help arrives.



WHO TO CONSULT

  • General Physician
  • Family Physician
  • Dermatologist

MEDICATIONS

Topical Anesthetics and Antipruritics
Provide temporary relief of pain and/or itching by minor burns.
  • Topical Amines and 'caine' type anesthetics
  • Topical alcohol and/or ketones
  • Topical Antihistamines

Topical Antibacterial Agents
(Antibiotics, antiseptics)
Prevents infection; not for treating injuries

Skin Protectants

Indicated for first degree and less severe second degree burns


PREPARATIONS
Prescription drugs (Rx)
Topical Antibacterials
Bactifree, Bactroban, Flammacerium, Flammazine, Flexid, Fucidin, Intertulle, Furacin, Fusoderm 2% Ointment, Garamycin 0.1% Cream/Ointment, Hopaq, Innoxiderm
Skin Protectants
Solcoseryl Jelly


Non Prescription drugs (Non-Rx)

Topical Anti-pruritics/Antihistamines
Fenistil Gel, Sarna

Topical Antibacterials
Fucidin Ointment/Cream, Terramycin Plus Skin Ointment

Topical Antiseptics
Betadine Cream 5%, Betadine Ointment 10%, Betadine Skin Cleanser, Betadine Wound Solution, Drapolene, IPI Burn Ointment, Phoenix Povidone, Skinguard

Skin Protectants
Apollo Petroleum Jelly, Calmoseptine Ointment, Spectrum Ultra, Vandol


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