Thursday, November 8, 2007

Anemia



eng: Anemia
fil:
kulang sa dugo, anemik
Ilocano: Nakurangan ti dara



OVERVIEW

  • Anemia occurs when the blood does not have enough red blood cells or when there is not enough hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen.
  • Women and people with chronic diseases are at increased risk of developing this condition.
  • Severe anemia can cause low oxygen levels internal organs such as the heart and can lead to arrythmias.





  • extreme fatigue, weakness
  • shortness of breathe
  • confusion of loss of concentration
  • dizziness or fainting
  • pale skin, including decreased pinkness of the lips, gums, lining of the eyelids, nail beds and palms.
  • palpitations

CAUSES
  • heavy menstruation
  • certain diseases (e.g AIDS, gastrointestinal bleeding, liver disease and chronic inflammatory disease)
  • drugs or medications (e.g alcohol, antibiotics like penicillin, high blood pressure drugs like methyldopa etc.)
  • impaired production of RBC
  • lack of iron necessary for production of hemoglobin
  • vitamin B12 or B9 deficiency



  • a well balanced diet that includes iron and vitamin B-complex is essential to developing and maintaining a satisfactory blood count.



  • Spirulina, or blue green algae. Has been traditionally used to treat anemia. One teaspoon is usually given daily.
  • Alfalfa (medicago sativa), dandelion (taraxacum officinale) root or leaf, have long been used to fortify and cleanse the blood. For mild cases of anemia, they may help normalize levels of hemoglobin.


WHO TO CONSULT

  • General physician
  • Family physician
  • Hematologist


MEDICATIONS

Vitamins and iron supplements, are usually taken for several weeks or longer. Depending on the type and severity of anemia, these supplements are taken as a treatment and or as prevention against anemia.

  • Iron (ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate or ferrous gluconate) is an essential mineral for oxygen transport.
    • SE: gastric irritation, stained teeth, dark/black stools
    • CI: paptic ulcer disease, liver and kidney disease.
      • iron salts affect the absorption of most drugs including antacids, ascorbic acid, chloramphenicol cimetidine, quinolones and tetracyclines
  • Vitamin B9 (folic acid) is important in red blood cell formation and for developing fetus during pregnancy.
    • CI: not to be given with oral contraceptives, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors and hydantoins.
  • Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) reverse the production of abnormally large red blood cells. It should be used with caution in Leber's disease. do not take with colchicine and alcohol.


PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
Hematinics
Eurofer, Fer-In-Sol, Fergseol, Ferro Folsan Plus, Ferro Sanol Duodenal, Ferrous Sulfate Vamsler, Foralivit, foramefer, Fortifer/Fortifer-FA, Hanizyn, Harvifer, Hemobion, MAcrobee with Iron, Mulvitron, Nakaron, Purifol, Sorbifer durules, Treviron

Vitamin B Complex
Beta Plus Forte, Centravin, Enhansid, Folart, Hyper B12 Injection, Hyper BH3, Meganerv 1000, Meganerv-300, Methycobal, Nervafil, Nervex, Neuro-B's, Neurobase, Neurobexol Forte, Neurobion/5000, Nuron-E, Oranerv Forte, Polynerv 1000/500, , Rubramin, Silymarine Plus Vitamin B-Complex, Valtroplex


NON-PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

Hematinics
Ameciron, Brofesol, Cherifer, Children's Clusivol, Dupharon, Femina, Feosol Spansule, Ferglobin, Ferlin, Ferroplex, Hemarate, IBC, Iberet-500 FT, Incremin with Iron, Micron-C, Odiron/Odiron-C, Rhea Ferrous Sulfate, Sangobion, Terraferron, Trihemic, United Home Fersultfate Iron

Vitamin B-Complex
Crescin, Neurobexol, Neurogen-E, Nevramin, One-Six-twelve, Pharex Vitamin B-Complex, Polynerv-EC, SB-Plex, Sevenseas Vitamin B-Complex, Supraneuron, Vancular, Vibee

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